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 Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
Research

Internationally recognized as an empirically supported treatment

EMDR therapy is an approach to psychotherapy that is internationally recognized as empirically supported treatment for acute and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. EMDR therapy is based on an Adaptive Information Processing model developed by Francine Shapiro, Ph.D.

Integrates recognized principles from other therapeutic methods and scientific research

EMDR therapy integrates recognized principles from other therapeutic methods including imaginal exposure, mindfulness, cognitive and self-control techniques into a structured treatment plan developed to meet the specific needs of each person.

In the reprocessing phases of EMDR therapy, patients pay attention to a specific memory or situation and focus on alternating, bilateral eye movements for 30 to 40 second periods. For patients who do not tolerate or respond to the bilateral eye movements, alternating tones or touch (such as hand taps) can be used.

Research on EMDR therapy’s means of action and hypotheses regarding effects of bilateral stimulation demonstrate that the sensory stimulation used in EMDR therapy has several distinct neurobiological effects that contribute to EMDR therapy’s treatment effects.

Eating Disorders & EMDR
Trauma & EMDR

Meta-Analyses of EMDR Therapy

Bisson, J., Roberts, N.P., Andrew, M., Cooper, R. & Lewis, C. (2013). Psychological therapies for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub4

Bradley, R., Greene, J., Russ, E., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2005). A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry,162, 214–227.

Brown, R. C., Witt, A., Fegert, J. M., Keller, F., Rassenhofer, M., & Plener, P. L. (2017). Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Psychol Med, 1-13.

Carletto, S., Malandrone, F., Berchialla, P., Oliva, F., Colombi, N., Hase, M., . Ostacoli, L. (2021). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 12(1), 1894736. doi:10.1080/20008198.2021.1894736

Coventry, P. A., Meader, N., Melton, H., Temple, M., Dale, H., Wright, K., . . . Roberts, N. P. (2020). Psychological and pharmacological interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid mental health problems following complex traumatic events: Systematic review and component network meta-analysis. PLoS medicine, 17(8), e1003262.

Cuijpers, P., Veen, S. C. V., Sijbrandij, M., Yoder, W., & Cristea, I. A. (2020). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for mental health problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 1-16. doi:10.1080/16506073.2019.1703801

Davidson, P.R., & Parker, K.C.H. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 305–316.

Gerger, H., Munder, T., & Barth, J. (2014). Specific and nonspecific psychological interventions for PTSD symptoms: A meta-analysis with problem complexity as a moderator. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(7), 601-615. doi:10.1002/jclp.22059

Hoogsteder, L. M., Ten Thije, L., Schippers, E. E., & Stams, G. J. J. M. (2021). A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of EMDR and TF-CBT in Reducing Trauma Symptoms and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Adolescents. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol, 306624X211010290. doi:10.1177/0306624X211010290

Jeffries, F. W., & Davis, P. (2012). What is the role of eye movements in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? A review. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1-11. doi:10.1017/S1352465812000793

John-Baptiste Bastien, R., Jongsma, H. E., Kabadayi, M., & Billings, J. (2020). The effectiveness of psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in children, adolescents and young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med, 50(10), 1598-1612. doi:10.1017/S0033291720002007

Karatzias, T., Murphy, P., Cloitre, M., Bisson, J., Roberts, N., Shevlin, M., . . . Hutton, P. (2019). Psychological interventions for ICD-11 complex PTSD symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 1-15. doi:10.1017/s0033291719000436

Kip, A., Priebe, S., Holling, H., & Morina, N. (2020). Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in refugees. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Psychol Psychother. doi:10.1002/cpp.2446

Khan, A. M., Dar, S., Ahmed, R., Bachu, R., Adnan, M., & Kotapati, V. P. (2018). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Patients with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Cureus.

Kitchiner, N. J., Lewis, C., Roberts, N. P., & Bisson, J. I. (2019). Active duty and ex-serving military personnel with post-traumatic stress disorder treated with psychological therapies: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 10(1), 1684226. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1684226

Kline, A. C., Cooper, A. A., Rytwinksi, N. K., & Feeny, N. C. (2018). Long-term efficacy of psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Psychol Rev, 59, 30-40.

Lee, C.W. (2006). Efficacy and mechanisms of action of EMDR as a treatment for PTSD. Retrieved from Murdoch Research Repository: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/152/

Lee, C. W., & Cuijpers, P. (2012). A meta-analysis of the contribution of eye movements in processing emotional memories. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. Published online first. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2012.11.001

Lewey, J. H., Smith, C. L., Burcham, B., Saunders, N. L., Elfallal, D., & O’Toole, S. K. (2018). Comparing the Effectiveness of EMDR and TF-CBT for Children and Adolescents: a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 11(4), 457-472. doi:10.1007/s40653-018-0212-1

Lewis, C., Roberts, N. P., Andrew, M., Starling, E., & Bisson, J. I. (2020). Psychological therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1729633. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1729633

Lewis, C., Roberts, N. P., Gibson, S., & Bisson, J. I. (2020). Dropout from psychological therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1709709. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1709709

Mavranezouli, I., Megnin-Viggars, O., Daly, C., Dias, S., Stockton, S., Meiser-Stedman, R. et al. (2019). Psychological and psychosocial treatments for children and young people with post-traumatic stress disorder: a network meta-analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.

Mavranezouli, I., Megnin-Viggars, O., Daly, C., Dias, S., Welton, N. J., Stockton, S., . . . Pilling, S. (2020). Psychological treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: a network meta-analysis. Psychol Med, 1-14. doi:10.1017/S0033291720000070

Maxfield, L., & Hyer, L.A. (2002). The relationship between efficacy and methodology in studies investigating EMDR treatment of PTSD. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 23–41.

Moreno-Alcázar, A., Treen, D., Valiente-Gómez, A., Sio-Eroles, A., Pérez, V., Amann, B. L., & Radua, J. (2017). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in children and adolescent with post-traumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Frontiers in Psychology, (1750). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01750

Powers, M. B., Halpern, J. M., Ferenschak, M. P., Gillihan, S. J., & Foa, E. B. (2010). A meta-analytic review of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder. Clin Psychol Rev, 30(6), 635-41

Roberts, N. P., Kitchiner, N. J., Kenardy, J., Lewis, C. E., & Bisson, J. I. (2019). Early psychological intervention following recent trauma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 10(1), 1695486. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1695486

Rodenburg, R., Benjamin, A., de Roos, C, Meijer, A.M., & Stams, G.J. (2009). Efficacy of EMDR in children: A meta–analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 599-606.

Schumacher, S., Niemeyer, H., Engel, S., Cwik, J. C., & Knaevelsrud, C. (2018). Psychotherapeutic treatment and HPA axis regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 98, 186-201.

Seidler, G.H., & Wagner, F.E. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine, 36, 1515-1522.

Sepehry, A. A., Lam, K., Sheppard, M., Guirguis-Younger, M., & Maglio, A.-S. (2021). EMDR for Depression: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(1), 2-17. doi:10.1891/emdr-d-20-00038

Simmons, C., Meiser-Stedman, R., Baily, H., & Beazley, P. (2021). A meta-analysis of dropout from evidence-based psychological treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and young people. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 12(1), 1947570. doi:10.1080/20008198.2021.1947570

Sonis, J., & Cook, J. M. (2019). Medication versus trauma-focused psychotherapy for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res, 282, 112637. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112637

Stephen, L. A., Abdulkadir, H., & Karisse, C. (2017). Meta‐Analysis of Trauma‐Focused Therapies for Treating the Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(3), 339-353.

Tran, U. S., & Gregor, B. (2016). The relative efficacy of bona fide psychotherapies for post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analytical evaluation of randomized controlled trials. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 266.

Turrini, G., Purgato, M., Acarturk, C., Anttila, M., Au, T., Ballette, F., . . . Barbui, C. (2019). Efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions in asylum seekers and refugees: systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci, 1-13. doi:10.1017/S2045796019000027

Turrini, G., Tedeschi, F., Cuijpers, P., Del Giovane, C., Kip, A., Morina, N., . . . Barbui, C. (2021). A network meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD. BMJ Glob Health, 6, e005029. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005029

van Etten, M., & Taylor, S. (1998). Comparative efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 5, 126–144.

Yan, S., Shan, Y., Zhong, S., Miao, H., Luo, Y., Ran, H., & Jia, Y. (2021). The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Toward Adults with Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Front Psychiatry, 12, 700458. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.700458

Yunitri, N., Kao, C.-C., Chu, H., Voss, J., Chiu, H.-L., Liu, D.,. . . Chou, K.-R. (2020). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing toward anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 123, 102-113. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.01.005

Reviews of EMDR Therapy

Adams, R., Ohlsen, S., & Wood, E. (2020). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for the treatment of psychosis: a systematic review. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1711349. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1711349

Adler-Tapia, R., & Settle, C. (2009). Evidence of the efficacy of EMDR with children and adolescents in individual psychotherapy: A review of the research published in peer-reviewed journals. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 232-247. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.4.232

Balbo, M., Zaccagino, M., Martina, C., & Civlotti, C. (2017). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and eating disorders: A systematic review. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 321-329.

Barron, I. G., Bourgaize, C., Lempertz, D., Swinden, C., & Darker-Smith, S. (2019). Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing for Children and Adolescents With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Narrative Review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 270-283. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.270

Bedeschi, L. (2018). EMDR for Bipolar Disorder: A systematic review of the existing literature. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 15(3), 222-225.

Beer, R. (2018). Efficacy of EMDR Therapy for Children With PTSD: A Review of the Literature. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(4), 177-195. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.177

Bisson, J., & Andrew, M. (2007, 2009). Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, Art. no. CD003388. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub3.

Blankenship, D. M. (2017). Five Efficacious Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Empirical Review. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 39(4), 275-288.

Brewerton, T. D. (2018). An Overview of Trauma-Informed Care and Practice for Eating Disorders. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 1-18. doi:10.1080/10926771.2018.1532940

Brown, L. A., Belli, G. M., Asnaani, A., & Foa, E. B. (2019). A Review of the Role of Negative Cognitions About Oneself, Others, and the World in the Treatment of PTSD. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 43(1), 143-173. doi:10.1007/s10608-018-9938-1

Chen, R., Gillespie, A., Zhao, Y., Xi, Y., Ren, Y., & McLean, L. (2018). The Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Children and Adults Who Have Experienced Complex Childhood Trauma: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Front Psychol, 9, 534.

Civilotti, C., Margola, D., Zaccagnino, M., Cussino, M., Callerame, C., Vicini, A., & Fernandez, I. (2021). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Child and Adolescent Psychology: a Narrative Review. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 8(3), 95-109. doi:10.1007/s40501-021-00244-0

Cloitre, M. (2009, January). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1, Supplement 1) 32-43.

Contractor, A. A., Weiss, N. H., Forkus, S. R., & Keegan, F. (2020). Positive Internal Experiences in PTSD Interventions: A Critical Review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 152483802092578. doi:10.1177/1524838020925784

de Jongh, A., Amann, B. L., Hofmann, A., Farrell, D., & Lee, C. W. (2019). The Status of EMDR Therapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 30 Years After Its Introduction. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 261-269. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.261

de Jongh, A., Bicanic, I., Matthijssen, S., Amann, B. L., Hofmann, A., Farrell, D., . . . Maxfield, L. (2019). The Current Status of EMDR Therapy Involving the Treatment of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 284-290. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.284

de Jongh, A., ten Broeke, E., Farrell, D., & Maxfield, L. (2020). Empirically Supported Psychological Treatments: EMDR Therapy. In J. G. Beck & D. M. Sloan (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Traumatic Stress Disorders, Second Edition. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190088224.013.33

Dimitrov, L., Moschopoulou, E., & Korszun, A. (2019). Interventions for the Treatment of Cancer-Related Traumatic Stress Symptoms: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Psycho-Oncology. doi:10.1002/pon.5055

Dominguez, S. K., Matthijssen, S. J. M. A., & Lee, C. W. (2021). Trauma-focused treatments for depression. A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 16(7), e0254778. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0254778

Ehntholt, K. A., & Yule, W. (2006, December). Practitioner review: Assessment and treatment of refugee children and adolescents who have experienced war-related trauma. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 47(12), 1197-1210.

Engelhard, I. M., McNally, R. J., & van Schie, K. (2019). Retrieving and Modifying Traumatic Memories: Recent Research Relevant to Three Controversies. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 0963721418807728. doi:10.1177/0963721418807728

Faretta, E. (2018). EMDR in psychonocology. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 15(3), 206-221.

Faretta, E., & Dal Farra, M. (2019). Efficacy of EMDR Therapy for Anxiety Disorders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 325-332. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.325

Faretta, E., & Leeds, A. (2017). EMDR therapy of panic disorder and agoraphobia: A review of the existing literature. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 330-340.

Field, A., & Cottrell, D. (2011). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as a therapeutic intervention for traumatized children and adolescents: A systematic review of the evidence for family therapists. Journal of Family Therapy, 33(4), 374-388. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6427.2011.00548.x

Fleming, J. (2012). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of traumatized children and youth. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(1), 16-26. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.1.16

Furuta, M., Horsch, A., Ng, E. S. W., Bick, D., Spain, D., & Sin, J. (2018). Effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Psychological Therapies for Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Women Following Childbirth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Psychiatry, 9, 591.

Frappell-Cooke, W., & McCauley, M. (2018). Military psychological trauma and therapy: a review of EMDR treatment and supervision in the UK Ministry of Defence. J R Army Med Corps. doi:10.1136/jramc-2018-001060

Gillies, D., Taylor, F., Gray, C., O'Brien, L., & D'Abrew, N. (2013). Psychological therapies for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents (review). Evidence-based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, 8(3), 1004-116. doi:10.1002/ebch.1916

Grasser, L. R., & Javanbakht, A. (2019). Treatments of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Civilian Populations. Curr Psychiatry Rep, 21(2), 11. doi:10.1007/s11920-019-0994-3

Haerizadeh, M., Sumner, J. A., Birk, J. L., Gonzalez, C., Heyman-Kantor, R., Falzon, L., . . . Kronish, I. M. (2019). Interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms induced by medical events: A systematic review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 109908. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2019.109908

Haugen, P. T., Evces, M., & Weiss, D. S. (2012). Treating posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(5), 370-380. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.04.001

Hutchinson, R., King, N., & Majumder, P. (2022). How effective is group intervention in the treatment for unaccompanied and accompanied refugee minors with mental health difficulties: A systematic review. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 68(3), 484-499. doi:10.1177/00207640211057727

Javinsky, T.-R., Udo, I., & Awani, T. (2022). Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing: part 2 – wider use in stress and trauma conditions. BJPsych Advances, 1-10. doi:10.1192/bja.2022.31

Jonas DE, Cusack K, Forneris CA, Wilkins TM, Sonis J, Middleton JC, Feltner C, Meredith D, Cavanaugh J, Brownley KA, Olmsted KR, Greenblatt A, Weil A, Gaynes BN. (2013) Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 92. (Prepared by the RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10056-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 13-EHC011-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2013.

Klippel, C., & Sullivan, G. (2018). Older Adults as Caregivers for Veterans with PTSD. Generations, 42(3), 41-46.

Korn, D. L. (2009). EMDR and the treatment of complex PTSD: A review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 264-278. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.4.264.

Laufer, S., Engel, S., Knaevelsrud, C., & Schumacher, S. (2018). Cortisol and alpha-amylase assessment in psychotherapeutic intervention studies: A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 95, 235-262.

Leeds, A. M. (2009). Resources in EMDR and other trauma-focused psychotherapy: A review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(3), 152-160. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.3.152.

Lenferink, L. I. M., Meyerbröker, K., & Boelen, P. A. (2020). PTSD treatment in times of COVID-19: A systematic review of the effects of online EMDR. Psychiatry research, 293, 113438.

Matthijssen, S. J. M. A., Lee, C. W., de Roos, C., Barron, I. G., Jarero, I., Shapiro, E., . . . de Jongh, A. (2020). The Current Status of EMDR Therapy, Specific Target Areas, and Goals for the Future. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(4), 241-284. doi:10.1891/emdr-d-20-00039

Mavranezouli, I., Megnin-Viggars, O., Grey, N., Ghutani, G., Leach, J., Daly, C., . . . Pilling, S. (2020). Cost-effectiveness of psychological treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults. Plos One. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0232245

Melton, H., Meader, N., Dale, H., Wright, K., Jones-Diette, J., Temple, M., . . . Coventry, P. (2020). Interventions for adults with a history of complex traumatic events: the INCiTE mixed-methods systematic review. Health Technol Assess, 24(43), 1-312. doi:10.3310/hta24430

Merz, J., Schwarzer, G., & Gerger, H. (2019). Comparative Efficacy and Acceptability of Pharmacological, Psychotherapeutic, and Combination Treatments in Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Network Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry.

Naseh, M., Macgowan, M. J., Wagner, E. F., Abtahi, Z., Potocky, M., & Stuart, P. H. (2019). Cultural adaptations in psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder among refugees: A systematic review. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 28(1), 76-97. doi:10.1080/15313204.2019.1570891

Nelson, & Stephanie, D. (2011). The posttraumatic growth path: An emerging model for prevention and treatment of trauma-related behavioral health conditions. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 21(1), 1. doi:10.1037/a0022908

Nowill, J. (2010). A critical review of the controversy surrounding eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing. Counselling Psychology Review, 25(1), 63-70.

Perkins, B. R., & Rouanzoin, C. C. (2002). A critical evaluation of current views regarding eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Clarifying points of confusion. J Clin Psychol, 58(1), 77-97.

Perlini, C., Donisi, V., Rossetti, M. G., Moltrasio, C., Bellani, M., & Brambilla, P. (2020). The potential role of EMDR on trauma in affective disorders: A narrative review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 269, 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.001

Ponniah, K., & Hollon, S. D. (2009). Empirically supported psychological treatments for adult acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: A review. Depression and Anxiety, 26(12), 1086-1109. doi:10.1002/da.20635.

Portigliatti Pomeri, A., La Salvia, A., Carletto, S., Oliva, F., & Ostacoli, L. (2021). EMDR in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.590204

Rhoden, M.-A., Macgowan, M. J., & Huang, H. (2019). A Systematic Review of Psychological Trauma Interventions for Juvenile Offenders. Research on Social Work Practice, 104973151880657. doi:10.1177/1049731518806578

Schubert, S., & Lee, C. W. (2009). Adult PTSD and its treatment with EMDR: A review of controversies, evidence, and theoretical knowledge. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(3), 117-132. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.3.117

Sciarrino, N. A., Warnecke, A. J., & Teng, E. J. (2020). A Systematic Review of Intensive Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress. doi:10.1002/jts.22556

Stergiopoulos, E., Cimo, A., Cheng, C., Bonato, S., & Dewa, C. S. (2011). Interventions to improve work outcomes in work-related PTSD: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 838. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-838

Swan, S., Keen, N., Reynolds, N., & Onwumere, J. (2017). Psychological Interventions for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Psychosis: A Systematic Review of Outcomes. Front Psychol, 8, 341.

Tapia, G. (2019). Review of EMDR Interventions for Individuals With Substance Use Disorder With/Without Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 345-353. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.345

Tesarz, J., Wicking, M., Bernardy, K., & Seidler, G. H. (2019). EMDR Therapy’s Efficacy in the Treatment of Pain. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 337-344. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.337

Thompson, C. T., Vidgen, A., & Roberts, N. P. (2018). Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review.

Torchalla, I., & Strehlau, V. (2017). The Evidence Base for Interventions Targeting Individuals With Work-Related PTSD: A Systematic Review and Recommendations. Behav Modif, 145445517725048.

Valiente-Gómez, A., Moreno-Alcázar, A., Treen, D., Cedrón, C., Colom, F., Pérez, V. et al. (2017). EMDR beyond PTSD: A Systematic Literature Review. Front Psychol, 8, 1668.

van Rood, Y. R., & de Roos, C. (2009). EMDR in the treatment of medically unexplained symptoms: A systematic review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 248-263. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.3.4.248.

Verardp, A. R., & Cioccolanti, E. (2017). Traumatic experiences and EMDR in childhood and adolescence: A review of the scientific literature on efficacy studies. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 313-320.

Vickerman, K. A., & Margolin, G. (2009, July). Rape treatment outcome research: Empirical findings and state of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(5), 431-448.

von der Warth, R., Dams, J., Grochtdreis, T., & König, H.-H. (2020). Economic evaluations and cost analyses in posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1753940. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1753940

Whitehouse, J. (2019). What do clients say about their experiences of EMDR in the research literature? A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative research papers. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. doi:10.1016/j.ejtd.2019.03.002

Wilson, G., Farrell, D., Barron, I., Hutchins, J., Whybrow, D., & Kiernan, M. D. (2018). The Use of Eye-Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder-A Systematic Narrative Review. Front Psychol, 9, 923.

Randomized Controlled Studies

Abbasnejad, M., Mahani, K. N., & Zamyad, A. (2007). Efficacy of "eye movement desensitization and reprocessing" in reducing anxiety and unpleasant feelings due to earthquake experience. Psychological Research, 9(3-4), 104-117.

Acarturk, C., Konuk, E., Cetinkaya, M., Senay, I., Sijbrandij, M., Gulen, B. et al. (2016). The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among Syrian refugees: results of a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 46(12), 2583.

Ahmad A, Larsson B, & Sundelin-Wahlsten V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nord J Psychiatry, 61(5), 349-54.

Arnone, R., Orrico, A., D'aquino, G., & Di Munzio, W. (2012). [EMDR and psychopharmacological therapy in the treatment of the post-traumatic stress disorder]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 0. doi:10.1708/1071.11732

Arabia, E., Manca, M. L., & Solomon, R. M. (2011). EMDR for survivors of life-threatening cardiac events: Results of a pilot study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5, 2-13. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.1.2

Assmann, N., Fassbinder, E., Schaich, A., Lee, C. W., Boterhoven de Haan, K., Rijkeboer, M., & Arntz, A. (2021). Differential Effects of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders on Treatment Outcome in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Trauma. J Clin Med, 10(16), 3708. doi:10.3390/jcm10163708

Banoğlu, K., & Korkmazlar, Ü. (2022). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing group protocol with children in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in refugee children. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6(1), 100241. doi:10.1016/j.ejtd.2021.100241

Behnammoghadam, M., Kheramine, S., Zoladl, M., Cooper, R. Z., & Shahini, S. (2019). Effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on severity of stress in emergency medical technicians. Psychol Res Behav Manag, 12, 289-296.

Boterhoven de Haan, K. L., Lee, C. W., Fassbinder, E., van Es, S. M., Menninga, S., Meewisse, M. L., . . . Arntz, A. (2020). Imagery rescripting and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing as treatment for adults with post-traumatic stress disorder from childhood trauma: randomised clinical trial. Br J Psychiatry, 1-7. doi:10.1192/bjp.2020.158

Brennstuhl, M. J., Tarquinio, C., Strub, L., Montel, S., Rydberg, J. A., & Kapoula, Z. (2013). Benefits of immediate EMDR vs. Eclectic therapy intervention for victims of physical violence and accidents at the workplace: A pilot study. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 34(6), 425-34. doi:10.3109/01612840.2012.759633

Capezzani, L., Ostacoli, L., Cavallo, M., Carletto, S., Fernandez, I., Solomon, R., . . . Cantelmi, T. (2013). EMDR and CBT for cancer patients: Comparative study of effects on PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 134-143. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.134

Chiorino, V., Cattaneo, M. C., Macchi, E. A., Salerno, R., Roveraro, S., Bertolucci, G. G., . . . Fernandez, I. (2019). The EMDR Recent Birth Trauma Protocol: a pilot randomised clinical trial after traumatic childbirth. Psychol Health, 1-16. doi:10.1080/08870446.2019.1699088

Carlson, J., Chemtob, C.M., Rusnak, K., Hedlund, N.L, & Muraoka, M.Y. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(1), 3-24.

Chemtob, C.M., Nakashima, J., & Carlson, J.G. (2002). Brief-treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related PTSD: A field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 99-112.

Cook-Vienot, R., & Taylor, R. J. (2012). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and biofeedback/stress inoculation training in treating test anxiety. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(2), 62-72. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.2.62

Covers, M. L. V., de Jongh, A., Huntjens, R. J. C., de Roos, C., van den Hout, M., & Bicanic, I. A. E. (2021). Early intervention with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms in recent rape victims: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 12(1), 1943188. doi:10.1080/20008198.2021.1943188

Cvetek, R. (2008). EMDR treatment of distressful experiences that fail to meet the criteria for PTSD. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(1), 2-14.

de Bont, P. A., van Minnen, A., & de Jongh, A. (2013). Treating PTSD in patients with psychosis: A within-group controlled feasibility study examining the efficacy and safety of evidence-based PE and EMDR protocols. Behavior Therapy, 44(4), 717-730. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2013.07.002

de Bont, P. A. J. M., van der Vleugel, B. M., van den Berg, D. P. G., de Roos, C., Lokkerbol, J., Smit, F., . . . van Minnen, A. (2019). Health–economic benefits of treating trauma in psychosis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), 1565032. doi:10.1080/20008198.2018.1565032

Demirci, O., Sağaltıcı, E., Yıldırım, A., & Boysan, M. (2017). Comparison of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Duloxetine Treatment Outcomes in Women Patients with Somatic Symptom Disorder. Sleep and Hypnosis, 19(3), 70-77.

de Roos, C., Greenwald, R., den Hollander-Gijsman, M., Noorthoorn, E., van Buuren, S., & de Jongh, A. (2011). A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in disaster exposed children. The European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2, 5694. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.5694

de Roos, C., van der Oord, S., Zijlstra, B., Lucassen, S., Perrin, S., Emmelkamp, P., & de Jongh, A. (2017). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, cognitive behavioral writing therapy, and wait-list in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder following single-incident trauma: A multicenter randomized clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12768

de Roos, C., Zijlstra, B., Perrin, S., van der Oord, S., Lucassen, S., Emmelkamp, P., & de Jongh, A. (2021). Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome for single incident paediatric PTSD: a multi-centre randomized clinical trial. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 12(1), 1968138. doi:10.1080/20008198.2021.1968138

Diehle, J., Opmeer, B. C., Boer, F., Mannarino, A. P., & Lindauer, R. J. (2014). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: What works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0572-5

Doering, S., Ohlmeier, M. -C., de Jongh, A., Hofmann, A., & Bisping, V. (2013). Efficacy of a trauma-focused treatment approach for dental phobia: A randomized clinical trial. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 1-10. doi:10.1111/eos.12090

Dominguez, S., Drummond, P., Gouldthorp, B., Janson, D., & Lee, C. W. (2020). A randomized controlled trial examining the impact of individual trauma‐focused therapy for individuals receiving group treatment for depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. doi:10.1111/papt.12268

Edmond, T. E., Rubin, A., & Wambach, K. G. (1999, June). The effectiveness of EMDR with adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Social Work Research, 23(2), 103-116.

See also: Edmond, T., Sloan, L., & McCarty, D. (2004). Sexual abuse survivors’ perceptions of the effectiveness of EMDR and eclectic therapy: A mixed-methods study. Research on Social Work Practice, 14, 259-272.

Eğeci, İ. S., & Özgün, S. (2019). Randomized Controlled Trial: EMDR Early Intervention With and Without Eye Movements for Learned Helplessness State. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(2), 90-99. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.2.90

Faretta, E. (2012). [EMDR and cognitive-behavioural therapy in the treatment of panic disorder: A comparison]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 19-25. doi:10.1708/1071.11735

Faretta, E. (2013). EMDR and cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of panic disorder: A comparison. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 121-133. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.121

Farkas, L., Cyr, M., Lebeau, T. M., & Lemay, J. (2010). Effectiveness of MASTR/EMDR therapy for traumatized adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 3(2), 125-142.

Fereidouni, Z., Behnammoghadam, M., Jahanfar, A., & Dehghan, A. (2019). The Effect of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) on the severity of suicidal thoughts in patients with major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, Volume 15, 2459-2466. doi:10.2147/ndt.s210757

Gerhardt, A., Leisner, S., Hartmann, M., Janke, S., Seidler, G. H., Eich, W., & Tesarz, J. (2016). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs. Treatment-as-Usual for non-specific chronic back pain patients with psychological trauma: A randomized controlled pilot study. Frontiers in Psychiatry / Frontiers Research Foundation, 7, 201. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00201

George, A., Thilly, N., Rydberg, J. A., Luz, R., & Spitz, E. (2013). Effectiveness of EMDR treatment in PTSD after childbirth: A randomized controlled trial protocol. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica. doi:10.1111/aogs.12132

Ghanbari Nia, N., Afrasiabifar, A., & Behnammoghadam, M. (2018). Comparing the effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with guided imagery on pain severity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Pain Research, Volume 11, 2107-2113.

Gil-Jardiné, C., Evrard, G., Al Joboory, S., Tortes Saint Jammes, J., Masson, F., Ribéreau-Gayon, R. et al. (2018). Emergency room intervention to prevent post concussion-like symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder. A pilot randomized controlled study of a brief eye movement desensitization and reprocessing intervention versus reassurance or usual care. J Psychiatr Res, 103, 229-236.

Hafkemeijer, L., de Jongh, A., van der Palen, J., & Starrenburg, A. (2020). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in patients with a personality disorder. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1838777. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1838777

Hase, M., Plagge, J., Hase, A., Braas, R., Ostacoli, L., Hofmann, A. et al. (2018). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Versus Treatment as Usual in the Treatment of Depression: A Randomized-Controlled Trial. Front Psychol, 9, 1384.

Hase, M., Schallmayer, S., et al. (2008). EMDR Reprocessing of the Addiction Memory: Pretreatment, Posttreatment, and 1-Month Follow-Up. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research 2(3), 170-180.

Hogberg, G. et al., (2007). On treatment with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder in public transportation workers: A randomized controlled study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 54-61.

See also: Högberg, G. et al. (2008). Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Outcome is stable in 35-month follow-up. Psychiatry Research. 159, 101-108.

Horst, F., Den Oudsten, B., Zijlstra, W., de Jongh, A., Lobbestael, J., & De Vries, J. (2017). Cognitive behavioral therapy vs. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1409. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01409

Ironson, G.I., Freund, B., Strauss, J.L., & Williams, J. (2002). Comparison of two treatments for traumatic stress: A community-based study of EMDR and prolonged exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 113-128.

Ironson, G., Hylton, E., Gonzalez, B., Small, B., Freund, B., Gerstein, M., . . . Bira, L. (2020). Effectiveness of three brief treatments for recent traumatic events in a low-SES community setting. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1-10. doi:10.1037/tra0000594

Jaberghaderi, N., Greenwald, R., Rubin, A., Dolatabadim S., & Zand, S.O. (2004). A comparison of CBT and EMDR for sexually abused Iranian girls. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11, 358-368.

Jaberghaderi, N., Rezaei, M., Kolivand, M., & Shokoohi, A. (2019). Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Child Victims of Domestic Violence. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 14(1), 67-75.

Jahanfar, A., Fereidouni, Z., Behnammoghadam, M., Dehghan, A., & Bashti, S. (2020). Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing on the Quality of Life in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, Volume 13, 11-17. doi:10.2147/prbm.s232589

Jamshidi, F., Rajabi, S., & Dehghani, Y. (2020). How to heal their psychological wounds? Effectiveness of EMDR therapy on post‐traumatic stress symptoms, mind‐wandering and suicidal ideation in Iranian child abuse victims. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 1-10.

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Luber, M. (2011). The EMDR protocol for recent critical incidents: Application in a disaster mental health continuum of care context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(3), 82-94. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.3.82

Jarero, I., Givaudan, M., & Osorio, A. (2018). Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol Adapted for Ongoing Traumatic Stress to Female Patients With Cancer-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(3), 94-104.

Jarero, I., Schnaider, S., & Givaudan, M. (2019). Randomized Controlled Trial: Provision of EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents and Ongoing Traumatic Stress to First Responders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(2), 100-110. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.2.100

Jarero, I., Uribe, S., Artigas, L., & Givaudan, M. (2015). EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Technological Disaster Context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(4), 166-173.

Karatzias, T., Brown, M., Taggart, L., Truesdale, M., Sirisena, C., Walley, R., . . . Paterson, D. (2019). A mixed-methods, randomized controlled feasibility trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) plus Standard Care (SC) versus SC alone for DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in adults with intellectual disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil, 1-13. doi:10.1111/jar.12570

Kemp, M., Drummond, P., & McDermott, B. (2010). A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15(1), 5-25. doi:10.1177/1359104509339086

Lee, C. W., Gavriel, H., Drummond, P., Richards, J., & Greenwald, R. (2002, September). Treatment of PTSD: Stress inoculation training with prolonged exposure compared to EMDR. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(9), 1071-1089

Lenferink, L. I. M., de Keijser, J., Smid, G. E., & Boelen, P. A. (2020). Cognitive therapy and EMDR for reducing psychopathology in bereaved people after the MH17 plane crash: Findings from a randomized controlled trial. Traumatology. doi:10.1037/trm0000253

Lehnung, M., Shapiro, E., Schreiber, M., & Hofmann, A. (2017). Evaluating the EMDR group traumatic episode protocol with refugees: A field study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(3), 129-138. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.11.3.129

Leiner, A. S., Kearns, M. C., Jackson, J. L., Astin, M. C., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2012). Avoidant coping and treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. doi:10.1037/a0026814

Luyten, T. R., Jacquemin, L., Van Looveren, N., Declau, F., Fransen, E., Cardon, E., . . . Gilles, A. (2020). Bimodal Therapy for Chronic Subjective Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial of EMDR and TRT Versus CBT and TRT. Front Psychol, 11, 2048. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02048

Marcus, S., Marquis, P., & Sakai, C. (1997, Fall). Controlled study of treatment of PTSD using EMDR in an HMO setting. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 34(3), 307-315.

See also: Marcus, S., Marquis, P., & Sakai, C. (2004, August). Three- and 6-Month Follow-Up of EMDR Treatment of PTSD in an HMO Setting. International Journal of Stress Management, 11(3), 195-208.

Markus, W., Hornsveld, H. K., Burk, W. J., de Weert-van Oene, G. H., Becker, E. S., & DeJong, C. A. J. (2019). Addiction-Focused Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy as an Adjunct to Regular Outpatient Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder: Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. doi:10.1111/acer.14249

Marsden, Z., Lovell, K., Blore, D., Ali, S., & Delgadillo, J. (2017). A randomized controlled trial comparing EMDR and CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. doi:10.1002/cpp.2120

McGuire Stanbury, T. M., Drummond, P. D., Laugharne, J., Kullack, C., & Lee, C. W. (2020). Comparative Efficiency of EMDR and Prolonged Exposure in Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(1), 2-12. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.14.1.2.

Meentken, M. G., van der Mheen, M., van Beynum, I. M., Aendekerk, E. W. C., Legerstee, J. S., van der Ende, J., . . . Utens, E. M. W. J. (2021). Long-term effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in children and adolescents with medically related subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. doi:10.1093/eurjcn/zvaa006

Minelli, A., Zampieri, E., Sacco, C., Bazzanella, R., Mezzetti, N., Tessari, E., . . . Bortolomasi, M. (2019). Clinical efficacy of trauma-focused psychotherapies in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in-patients: A randomized, controlled pilot-study. Psychiatry Research, 273, 567-574. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2019.01.070

Molero, R. J., Jarero, I., & Givaudan, M. (2019). Longitudinal Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR-IGTP-OTS to Refugee Minors in Valencia, Spain. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 8(4), 77-88. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20190804.12

Nazari, H., Momeni, N., Jariani, M., & Tarrahi, M. J. (2011). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing with citalopram in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 15(4), 270-4. doi:10.3109/13651501.2011.590210

Nia, N. G., Afrasiabifar, A., Behnammoghadam, M., & Cooper, R. Z. (2019). The Effect of EMDR Versus Guided Imagery on Insomnia Severity in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 2-9. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.2

Nijdam, M. J., Gersons, B. P., Reitsma, J. B., de Jongh, A., & Olff, M. (2012). Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: Randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 200, 224-31. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.099234

Novo, P., Landin-Romero, R., Radua, J., Vicens, V., Fernandez, I., Garcia, F., . . . Amann, B. L. (2014). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in subsyndromal bipolar patients with a history of traumatic events: A randomized, controlled pilot-study. Psychiatry Research, 219(1), 122-128. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.05.012

Ostacoli, L., Carletto, S., Cavallo, M., Baldomir-Gago, P., Di Lorenzo, G., Fernandez, I. et al. (2018). Comparison of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as Adjunctive Treatments for Recurrent Depression: The European Depression EMDR Network (EDEN) Randomized Controlled Trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 74).

Perez, M. C., Estevez, M. E., Becker, Y., Osorio, A., Jarero, I., & Givaudan, M. (2020). Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Ongoing Traumatic Stress Remote to Healthcare Professionals Working in Hospitals During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 15(4), 1-12.

Power, K., McGoldrick, T., Brown, K., Buchanan, R., Sharp, D., Swanson, V., & Karatzias, A. (2002, August). A controlled comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus exposure plus cognitive restructuring, versus waiting list in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 9(5), 299-318.

See also: Karatzias, A., Power, K. McGoldrick, T., Brown, K., Buchanan, R., Sharp, D. & Swanson, V. (2006). Predicting treatment outcome on three measures for post-traumatic stress disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neuroscience, 20, 1-7.

Rahimi, F., Rejeh, N., Bahrami, T., Heravi‐Karimooi, M., Tadrisi, S. D., Griffiths, P. et al. (2019). The effect of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing intervention on anxiety and depression among patients undergoing hemodialysis: A randomized controlled trial. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.

Raboni, M. R., Alonso, F. F., Tufik, S., & Suchecki, D. (2014). Improvement of mood and sleep alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder patients by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 209. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00209

Roque-Lopez, S., Llanez-Anaya, E., Álvarez-López, M. J., Everts, M., Fernández, D., Davidson, R. J., & Kaliman, P. (2021). Mental health benefits of a 1-week intensive multimodal group program for adolescents with multiple adverse childhood experiences. Child Abuse Negl, 122, 105349. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105349

Rostaminejad, A., Behnammoghadam, M., Rostaminejad, M., Behnammoghadam, Z., & Bashti, S. (2017). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on the phantom limb pain of patients with amputations within a 24-month follow-up. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. doi:10.1097/MRR.0000000000000227

Rothbaum, B. (1997). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disordered sexual assault victims. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61, 317-334.

Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Marsteller, F. (2005, December). Prolonged exposure versus eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(6), 607-616.

Santarnecchi, E., Bossini, L., Vatti, G., Fagiolini, A., La Porta, P., Di Lorenzo, G., . . . Rossi, A. (2019). Psychological and Brain Connectivity Changes Following Trauma-Focused CBT and EMDR Treatment in Single-Episode PTSD Patients. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00129

Scheck, M., Schaeffer, J.A., & Gillette, C. (1998). Brief psychological intervention with traumatized young women: The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 25-44.

Shapiro, E., & Laub, B. (2015). Early EMDR Intervention Following a Community Critical Incident: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J EMDR Prac Res, 9(1), 17-27.

Shapiro, E., Laub, B., & Rosenblat, O. (2018). Early EMDR intervention following intense rocket attacks on a town: A randomised clinical trial. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 15(3), 194-205.

Shapiro, F. (1989). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 199–223.

Sheikhi, M., Moradi, M., Shahsavary, S., Alimoradi, Z., & Salimi, H. R. (2020). The effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on the fear of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized clinical trial. BMC Psychol, 8(1), 82. doi:10.1186/s40359-020-00450-0

Soberman, G. B., Greenwald, R., & Rule, D. L. (2002). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for boys with conduct problems. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 6, 217-236.

Suárez, N. A., Pérez, J. M., Redolar-Ripoll, D., Hogg, B. M., Gardoki-Souto, I., Guerrero, F. G., . . . Moreno-Alcázar, A. (2020). EMDR versus treatment-as-usual in patients with chronic non-malignant pain: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(4), 190-205. doi:10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00004

Susanty, E., Sijbrandij, M., Srisayekti, W., Suparman, Y., & Huizink, A. C. (2022). The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Indonesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Front Psychol, 13, 845520. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.845520

Taylor, S., Thordarson, D., Maxfield, L., Fedoroff, I., Lovell, K., & Ogrodniczuk, J. (2003, April). Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 330-338.

van Denderen, M., de Keijser, J., Stewart, R., & Boelen, P. A. (2018). Treating complicated grief and posttraumatic stress in homicidally bereaved individuals: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 25(4), 497-508.

Van der Kolk, B., Spinazzola, J. Blaustein, M., Hopper, J. Hopper, E., Korn, D., & Simpson, W. (2007). A randomized clinical trial of EMDR, fluoxetine and pill placebo in the treatment of PTSD: Treatment effects and long-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 37-46.

van der Vleugel, B. M., Libedinsky, I., de Bont, P. A. J. M., de Roos, C., van Minnen, A., de Jongh, A., . . . van den Berg, D. (2020). Changes in posttraumatic cognitions mediate the effects of trauma-focused therapy on paranoia. Schizophrenia Bulletin Open. doi:10.1093/schizbullopen/sgaa036/33550606/sgaa036.pdf

Vaughan, K., Armstrong, M.F., Gold, R., O'Connor, N., Jenneke, W., & Tarrier, N. (1994). A trial of eye movement desensitization compared to image habituation training and applied muscle relaxation in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 283-291.

Yurtsever, A., Konuk, E., Akyüz, T., Zat, Z., Tükel, F., Çetinkaya, M. et al. (2018). An Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Group Intervention for Syrian Refugees With Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Front Psychol, 9, 493.

Wanders, F., Serra, M., & de Jongh, A. (2008). EMDR Versus CBT for Children With Self-Esteem and Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(3), 180-189.

Wigley, I. L. C. M., De Tommasi, V., Bonichini, S., Fernandez, I., & Benini, F. (2019). EMDR and Nonpharmacological Techniques for Anxiety Prevention in Children Prior to Invasive Medical Procedures: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(3), 163-175. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.3.163

Wilson, S., Becker, L.A., & Tinker, R.H. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for psychologically traumatized individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 928-937.

See also: Wilson, S., Becker, L.A., & Tinker, R.H. (1997). Fifteen-month follow-up of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological trauma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 1047-1056.

Zolghadr, N., Khoshnazar, A., MoradiBaglooei, M., & Alimoradi, Z. (2019). The Effect of EMDR on Childbirth Anxiety of Women With Previous Stillbirth. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 10-19. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.10

Combat Trauma

Butler, O., Willmund, G., Gleich, T., Gallinat, J., Kühn, S., & Zimmermann, P. (2018). Hippocampal gray matter increases following multimodal psychological treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Brain Behav, 8(5), e00956.

Carlson, J., Chemtob, C.M., Rusnak, K., Hedlund, N.L, & Muraoka, M.Y. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(1), 3-24.

Cook, J.M., Biyanova, T., & Coyne, J.C. (2009). Comparative case study of diffusion of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in two clinical settings: Empirically supported treatment status is not enough. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 518–524.

Hurley, E. C. (2018). Effective Treatment of Veterans With PTSD: Comparison Between Intensive Daily and Weekly EMDR Approaches. Front Psychol, 9, 1458.

Köhler, K., Eggert, P., Lorenz, S., Herr, K., Willmund, G., Zimmermann, P. et al. (2017). Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in German Armed Forces Soldiers With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Under Routine Inpatient Care Conditions. Mil Med, 182(5), e1672-e1680.

Russell, M. (2006). Treating combat-related stress disorders: A multiple case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with battlefield casualties from the Iraqi war. Military Psychology, 18(1), 1-18.

Russell, M. (2008). Treating traumatic amputation-related phantom limb pain: A case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) within the armed services. Clinical Case Studies. 7(2), 136-153.

Russell, M.C. (2008). War-related medically unexplained symptoms, prevalence, and treatment: utilizing EMDR within the armed services. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. 2(3), 212-226.

Russell, M.C. (2008). Scientific resistance to research, training and utilization of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in treating post-war disorders. Social Science & Medicine, 67(11), 1737–1746.

Russell, M.C., & Silver, S.M. (2007). Training needs for the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Traumatology. 13(3), 4-10.

Russell, M.C., Silver, S.M., Rogers, S., & Darnell, J. (2007). Responding to an identified need: A joint Department of Defense-Department of Veterans Affairs training program in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for clinicians providing trauma services. International Journal of Stress Management. 14(1), 61-71.

Silver, S.M., Rogers, S., & Russell, M.C. (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of war veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 64(8), 947—957.

Wesson, M. & Gould, M. (2009). Intervening early with EMDR on military operations: A case study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. 3(2), 91-97.

Group EMDR Therapy

Adúriz, M. E., Bluthgen, C., & Knopfler, C. (2009). Helping child flood victims using group EMDR intervention in Argentina: Treatment outcome and gender differences. International Journal of Stress Management, 16(2), 138-153. doi:10.1037/a0014719

Allon, M. (2015). EMDR Group Therapy With Women Who Were Sexually Assaulted in the Congo. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(1), 28-34. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.9.1.28

Banoğlu, K., & Korkmazlar, Ü. (2022). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing group protocol with children in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in refugee children. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6(1), 100241. doi:10.1016/j.ejtd.2021.100241

Bayhan, B. B., Tarquinio, C., Rydberg, J., & Korkmazlar, Ü. (2022). The study of the group intervention containing EMDR therapy for children and mothers in the field of trauma after a mine explosion in Turkey. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6(1), 100248. doi:10.1016/j.ejtd.2021.100248

Brennstuhl, M.-J., Bassan, F., Fayard, A.-M., Fisselbrand, M., Guth, A., Hassler, M., . . . Tarquinio, C. (2019). Immediate treatment following the November 13 attacks: Use of an EMDR emergency protocol. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 3(1), 17-21. doi:10.1016/j.ejtd.2018.09.004

Brown, R. C., Witt, A., Fegert, J. M., Keller, F., Rassenhofer, M., & Plener, P. L. (2017). Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Psychol Med, 1-13. doi:10.1017/S0033291717000496

Chung, C. Y., Kim, D., Kim, S.-h., Bae, H., Lee, K., & Go, B. (2014). Treatment Response of Affect Regulation Group Therapy for Recently Traumatized School Children. Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 53(3), 171. doi:10.4306/jknpa.2014.53.3.171

Daniel Estrada, B., de Jesús Angulo, B., Elena Navarro, M., Jarero, I., & Sánchez-Armass, O. (2019). PTSD, Immunoglobulins, and Cortisol Changes after the Provision of the EMDR - PRECI to Females Patients with Cancer-Related PTSD Diagnosis. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 8(3), 64. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20190803.12

Fernandez, I., Gallinari, E., & Lrenzetti, A. (2003). A school-based intervention for children who witnessed the Pirelli building airplane crash in Milan, Italy. Journal of Brief Therapy, 2(2), 129-136.

Fogliato, E., Invernizzi, R., Maslovaric, G., Fernandez, I., Rigamonti, V., Lora, A., . . . Pagani, M. (2022). Promoting Mental Health in Healthcare Workers in Hospitals Through Psychological Group Support With Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing During COVID-19 Pandemic: An Observational Study. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.794178

Harris, H., Urdaneta, V., Triana, V., Vo, C. S., Walden, D., & Myers, D. (2018). A Pilot Study with Spanish-Speaking Latina Survivors of Domestic Violence Comparing EMDR & TF-CBT Group Interventions. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 06(11), 203-222. doi:10.4236/jss.2018.611015

Hurn, R., & Barron, I. (2018). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol in a Psychosocial Program for Refugee Children: A Qualitative Pilot Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(4), 208-223. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.208

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Hartung, J. (2005). Protocolo grupal e integrativo con EMDR: intervención post-catastrófe para niños y adultos. Revista de psicotrauma para Iberoamérica, IV(1), 22-29.

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Hartung, J. (2006). EMDR integrative group treatment protocol: A post-disaster trauma intervention for children and adults. Traumatology, 12(2), 121-129. doi:10.1177/1534765606294561

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Hartung, J. (2006). EMDR integrative group treatment protocol: A postdisaster trauma intervention for children and adults. Traumatology, 12(2), 121-129. doi:10.1177/1534765606294561

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Montero, M., & Lena, L. (2008). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: Application With Child Victims of a Mass Disaster. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(2), 97-105. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.2.2.97

 

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2010). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: Application With Adults During Ongoing Geopolitical Crisis. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(4), 148-155. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.4.4.148

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Luber, M. (2011). The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Application in a Disaster Mental Health Continuum of Care Context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(3), 82-94. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.3.82

Jarero, I., & Uribe, S. (2011). The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Brief Report of an Application in a Human Massacre Situation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(4), 156-165. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.4.156

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2012). The EMDR integrative group treatment protocol: EMDR group treatment for early intervention following critical incidents. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 219 - 222. doi:10.1016/j.erap.2012.04.004

Jarero, I., & Uribe, S. (2012). The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Follow-Up Report of an Application in a Human Massacre Situation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(2), 50-61. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.2.50

Jarero, I., Amaya, C., Givaudan, M., & Miranda, A. (2013). EMDR Individual Protocol for Paraprofessional Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial With First Responders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(2), 55-64. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.2.55

Jarero, I., Roque-Lopez, S., & Gomez, J. (2013). The Provision of an EMDR-Based Multicomponent Trauma Treatment With Child Victims of Severe Interpersonal Trauma. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(1), 17-28. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.1.17

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., & Miranda, A. (2014). EMDR Therapy Humanitarian Trauma Recovery Interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 8(4), 260-268. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.8.4.260

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., Garcîa, L. E., Cavazos, M. A., & Givaudan, M. (2014). Pilot Research Study on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol with Female Cancer Patients. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicotraumatología y Disociación, 6(3). Retrieved from http://revibapst.com/volumen-6-numero-3-2014/

Jarero, I., Roque-Lopez, S., Gomez, J., & Givaudan, M. (2014). Second Research Study on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol with Child Victims of Severe Interpersonal Violence. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation, 6(1), 1-24.

Jarero, I., Roque-Lopez, S., Gomez, J., & Givaudan, M. (2014). Third Research Study on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol with Child Victims of Severe Interpersonal Violence. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation, 6(2), 1-22.

Jarero, I., Uribe, S., Artigas, L., & Givaudan, M. (2015). EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Technological Disaster Context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(4), 166-173. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.9.4.166

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., García, L. E., Cavazos, M. A., & Givaudan, M. (2015). Pilot Research Study on the Provision of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol With Female Cancer Patients. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(2), 98-105. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.9.2.98

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., & García, L. E. (2016). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Patients With Cancer. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(3), 199-207. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.10.3.199

Jarero, I., Rake, G., & Givaudan, M. (2017). EMDR Therapy Program for Advanced Psychosocial Interventions Provided by Paraprofessionals. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(3), 122-128. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.11.3.122

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2018). AIP model-based Acute Trauma and Ongoing Traumatic Stress Theoretical Conceptualization. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation, 10(1). Retrieved from http://revibapst.com/data/documents/AIP-MODEL-BASED-ACUTE-TRAUMA-AND-OTS-JAN-8-2018.pdf

Jarero, I., Givaudan, M., & Osorio, A. (2018). Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol Adapted for Ongoing Traumatic Stress to Female Patients With Cancer-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(3), 94-104. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.12.3.94

Jarero, I. (2019). Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial on the Provision of the EMDR-PRECI to Family Caregivers of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 11(1). doi:10.19080/pbsij.2019.11.555802

Jarero, I., Schnaider, S., & Givaudan, M. (2019). Randomized Controlled Trial: Provision of EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents and Ongoing Traumatic Stress to First Responders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(2), 100-110. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.2.100

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2021). AIP model-based Acute Trauma and Ongoing Traumatic Stress Theoretical Conceptualization. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation., 10(1). doi:10.1037/a0032484

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2021). The EMDR Therapy Butterfly Hug Method for Self-Administered Bilateral Stimulation. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation, 11(1), 1-7. Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/yjzq2wbg

Jiménez, G., Becker, Y., Varela, C., García, P., Amparo Nuño, M., Cristina Pérez, M., . . . Givaudan, M. (2020). Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR-PRECI to Female Minors Victims of Sexual and/or Physical Violence and Related PTSD Diagnosis. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 9(2), 42. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20200902.12

Kaptan, S. K., Dursun, B. O., Knowles, M., Husain, N., & Varese, F. (2021). Group eye movement desensitization and reprocessing interventions in adults and children: A systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Clin Psychol Psychother. doi:10.1002/cpp.2549

Karadag, M. (2020). EMDR Integrative Group Treatment for Female Adolescents Victims of Sexual Abuse with Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [Cinsel İstismar Mağduru Kompleks Travma Sonrası Stres Bozukluğu olan Kız Ergenlerde Grup EMDR Uygulaması]. Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 12, 43-51. doi:10.18863/pgy.686609 

 

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2010). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: Application With Adults During Ongoing Geopolitical Crisis. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(4), 148-155. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.4.4.148

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Luber, M. (2011). The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Application in a Disaster Mental Health Continuum of Care Context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(3), 82-94. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.3.82

Jarero, I., & Uribe, S. (2011). The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Brief Report of an Application in a Human Massacre Situation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(4), 156-165. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.4.156

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2012). The EMDR integrative group treatment protocol: EMDR group treatment for early intervention following critical incidents. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 219 - 222. doi:10.1016/j.erap.2012.04.004

Jarero, I., & Uribe, S. (2012). The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Follow-Up Report of an Application in a Human Massacre Situation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(2), 50-61. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.2.50

Jarero, I., Amaya, C., Givaudan, M., & Miranda, A. (2013). EMDR Individual Protocol for Paraprofessional Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial With First Responders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(2), 55-64. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.2.55

Jarero, I., Roque-Lopez, S., & Gomez, J. (2013). The Provision of an EMDR-Based Multicomponent Trauma Treatment With Child Victims of Severe Interpersonal Trauma. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(1), 17-28. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.1.17

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., & Miranda, A. (2014). EMDR Therapy Humanitarian Trauma Recovery Interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 8(4), 260-268. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.8.4.260

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., Garcîa, L. E., Cavazos, M. A., & Givaudan, M. (2014). Pilot Research Study on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol with Female Cancer Patients. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicotraumatología y Disociación, 6(3). Retrieved from http://revibapst.com/volumen-6-numero-3-2014/

Jarero, I., Roque-Lopez, S., Gomez, J., & Givaudan, M. (2014). Second Research Study on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol with Child Victims of Severe Interpersonal Violence. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation, 6(1), 1-24.

Jarero, I., Roque-Lopez, S., Gomez, J., & Givaudan, M. (2014). Third Research Study on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol with Child Victims of Severe Interpersonal Violence. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation, 6(2), 1-22.

Jarero, I., Uribe, S., Artigas, L., & Givaudan, M. (2015). EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Technological Disaster Context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(4), 166-173. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.9.4.166

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., García, L. E., Cavazos, M. A., & Givaudan, M. (2015). Pilot Research Study on the Provision of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol With Female Cancer Patients. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(2), 98-105. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.9.2.98

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Uribe, S., & García, L. E. (2016). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Patients With Cancer. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(3), 199-207. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.10.3.199

Jarero, I., Rake, G., & Givaudan, M. (2017). EMDR Therapy Program for Advanced Psychosocial Interventions Provided by Paraprofessionals. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(3), 122-128. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.11.3.122

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2018). AIP model-based Acute Trauma and Ongoing Traumatic Stress Theoretical Conceptualization. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation, 10(1). Retrieved from http://revibapst.com/data/documents/AIP-MODEL-BASED-ACUTE-TRAUMA-AND-OTS-JAN-8-2018.pdf

Jarero, I., Givaudan, M., & Osorio, A. (2018). Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol Adapted for Ongoing Traumatic Stress to Female Patients With Cancer-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(3), 94-104. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.12.3.94

Jarero, I. (2019). Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial on the Provision of the EMDR-PRECI to Family Caregivers of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 11(1). doi:10.19080/pbsij.2019.11.555802

Jarero, I., Schnaider, S., & Givaudan, M. (2019). Randomized Controlled Trial: Provision of EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents and Ongoing Traumatic Stress to First Responders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(2), 100-110. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.2.100

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2021). AIP model-based Acute Trauma and Ongoing Traumatic Stress Theoretical Conceptualization. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation., 10(1). doi:10.1037/a0032484

Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2021). The EMDR Therapy Butterfly Hug Method for Self-Administered Bilateral Stimulation. Iberoamerican Journal of Psychotraumatology and Dissociation, 11(1), 1-7. Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/yjzq2wbg

Jiménez, G., Becker, Y., Varela, C., García, P., Amparo Nuño, M., Cristina Pérez, M., . . . Givaudan, M. (2020). Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR-PRECI to Female Minors Victims of Sexual and/or Physical Violence and Related PTSD Diagnosis. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 9(2), 42. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20200902.12

Kaptan, S. K., Dursun, B. O., Knowles, M., Husain, N., & Varese, F. (2021). Group eye movement desensitization and reprocessing interventions in adults and children: A systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Clin Psychol Psychother. doi:10.1002/cpp.2549

Karadag, M. (2020). EMDR Integrative Group Treatment for Female Adolescents Victims of Sexual Abuse with Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [Cinsel İstismar Mağduru Kompleks Travma Sonrası Stres Bozukluğu olan Kız Ergenlerde Grup EMDR Uygulaması]. Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 12, 43-51. doi:10.18863/pgy.686609

Karadag, M., & Gunel Karadeniz, P. (2021). Comparison of Group Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing with Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy Protocol after the 2020 Earthquake in Turkey: A Field Study in Children and Adolescents. European Journal of Therapeutics, 27(1), 40-44. doi:10.5152/eurjther.2021.20056

Korkmazlar, Ü., Bozkurt, B., & Tan Tunca, D. (2020). EMDR Group Protocol With Children: A Field Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(1), 13-30. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.14.1.13

Lazzaroni, E., Invernizzi, R., Fogliato, E., Pagani, M., & Maslovaric, G. (2021). Coronavirus Disease 2019 Emergency and Remote Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Group Therapy With Adolescents and Young Adults: Overcoming Lockdown With the Butterfly Hug. Front Psychol, 12, 701381. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.701381

Lehnung, M., Shapiro, E., Schreiber, M., & Hofmann, A. (2017). Evaluating the EMDR Group Traumatic Episode Protocol With Refugees: A Field Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11(3), 129-138. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.11.3.129

Lempertz, D., Wichmann, M., Enderle, E., Stellermann-Strehlow, K., Pawils, S., & Metzner, F. (2020). Pre-Post Study to Assess EMDR-Based Group Therapy for Traumatized Refugee Preschoolers. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(1), 31-45. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.14.1.31

Manfield, P. E., Engel, L., Greenwald, R., & Bullard, D. G. (2021). Flash Technique in a Scalable Low-Intensity Group Intervention for COVID-19-Related Stress in Healthcare Providers. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(2), 127-139. doi:10.1891/emdr-d-20-00053

Maslovaric, G., Zaccagnino, M., Mezzaluna, C., Perilli, S., Trivellato, D., Longo, V., & Civilotti, C. (2017). The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Protocol with Adolescent Survivors of the Central Italy Earthquake. Front Psychol, 8, 1826. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01826

Moench, J., & Billsten, O. (2021). Randomized Controlled Trial: Self-Care Traumatic Episode Protocol, Computerized EMDR Treatment of COVID-19-Related Stress. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(2), 99-113. doi:10.1891/emdr-d-20-00047

Molero, R. J., Jarero, I., & Givaudan, M. (2019). Longitudinal Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR-IGTP-OTS to Refugee Minors in Valencia, Spain. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 8(4), 77-88. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20190804.12

Passoni, S., Curinga, T., Toraldo, A., Berlingeri, M., Fernandez, I., & Bottini, G. (2018). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP) Applied to Caregivers of Patients With Dementia. Front Psychol, 9, 967. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00967

Perez, M. C., Estevez, M. E., Becker, Y., Osorio, A., Jarero, I., & Givaudan, M. (2020). Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Ongoing Traumatic Stress Remote to Healthcare Professionals Working in Hospitals During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 15(4), 1-12. doi:10.19080/PBSIJ.2020.15.555920

Perilli, S., Giuliani, A., Pagani, M., Mazzoni, G. P., Maslovaric, G., Maccarrone, B., . . . Morales, D. (2019). EMDR Group Treatment of Children Refugees—A Field Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(2), 143-155. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.2.143

Roque-Lopez, S., Llanez-Anaya, E., Álvarez-López, M. J., Everts, M., Fernández, D., Davidson, R. J., & Kaliman, P. (2021). Mental health benefits of a 1-week intensive multimodal group program for adolescents with multiple adverse childhood experiences. Child Abuse Negl, 122, 105349. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105349

Smyth-Dent, K., Becker, Y., Burns, E., & Givaudan, M. (2021). The Acute Stress Syndrome Stabilization Remote Individual (ASSYST-RI) for TeleMental Health Counseling After Adverse Experiences. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 16(2). doi:10.19080/PBSIJ.2021.16.555932

Smyth-Dent, K. L., Fitzgerald, J., & Hagos, Y. (2019). A Field Study on the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Ongoing Traumatic Stress Provided to Adolescent Eritrean Refugees Living in Ethiopia. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 12(4), 1-12. doi:10.19080/PBSIJ.2019.12.555842

Torricelli, L., Poletti, M., & Raballo, A. (2020). Managing COVID-19 related psychological distress in health workers: field experience in northern Italy. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. doi:10.1111/pcn.13165

Trentini, C., Lauriola, M., Giuliani, A., Maslovaric, G., Tambelli, R., Fernandez, I., & Pagani, M. (2018). Dealing With the Aftermath of Mass Disasters: A Field Study on the Application of EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol With Child Survivors of the 2016 Italy Earthquakes. Front Psychol, 9, 862. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00862

Tsouvelas, G., Chondrokouki, M., Nikolaidis, G., & Shapiro, E. (2019). A vicarious trauma preventive approach. The Group Traumatic Episode Protocol EMDR and workplace affect in professionals who work with child abuse and neglect. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience & Mental Health, 2(3), 130-138. doi:10.26386/obrela.v2i3.123

Wong, S.-L. (2018). EMDR-Based Divorce Recovery Group: A Case Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(2), 58-70. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.12.2.58

Yael, B., Elena, E. M., Cristina, P. M., Amalia, O., Ignacio, J., & Martha, G. (2021). Longitudinal multisite randomized controlled trial on the provision of the acute stress syndrome stabilization remote for groups to general population in lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 16(2). doi:10.19080/PBSIJ.2021.16.555931

Yurtsever, A., Konuk, E., Akyüz, T., Zat, Z., Tükel, F., Çetinkaya, M., . . . Shapiro, E. (2018). An Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Group Intervention for Syrian Refugees With Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Front Psychol, 9, 493. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00493

Zaghrout-Hodali, M., Alissa, F., & Dodgson, P. W. (2008). Building resilience and dismantling fear: EMDR group protocol with children in an area of ongoing trauma. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(2), 106-113. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.2.2.106

Studies of Hypotheses Regarding Eye Movements

Andrade, J., Kavanagh, D., & Baddeley, A. (1997). Eye-movements and visual imagery: A working memory approach to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36(2), 209-223.

Baek, J., Lee, S., Cho, T., Kim, S.-W., Kim, M., Yoon, Y., . . . Shin, H.-S. (2019). Neural circuits underlying a psychotherapeutic regimen for fear disorders. Nature. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-0931-y

Barrowcliff, A.L., Gray, N.S., Freeman, T.C.A., & MacCulloch, M.J. (2004). Eye-movements reduce the vividness, emotional valence and electrodermal arousal associated with negative autobiographical memories. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 15(2), 325-345.

Barrowcliff, A.L., Gray, N.S., MacCulloch, S., Freeman, T. C.A., & MacCulloch, M.J. (2003). Horizontal rhythmical eye-movements consistently diminish the arousal provoked by auditory stimuli. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42(Part 3), 289-302.

Brincat, S. L., Donoghue, J. A., Mahnke, M. K., Kornblith, S., Lundqvist, M., & Miller, E. K. (2021). Interhemispheric transfer of working memories. Neuron, 109(6), 1055-1066.e4. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2021.01.016

Christman, S. D., Garvey, K. J., Propper, R. E., & Phaneuf, K. A. (2003). Bilateral eye movements enhance the retrieval of episodic memories. Neuropsychology, 17, 221-229.

Cuperus, A. A., Laken, M., van Schie, K., Engelhard, I. M., & van den Hout, M. A. (2019). Dual-tasking during recall of negative memories or during visual perception of images: Effects on vividness and emotionality. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry, 62, 112-116.

de Jongh, A., Ernst, R., Marques, L., & Hornsveld, H. (2013). The impact of eye movements and tones on disturbing memories involving PTSD and other mental disorders. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44(4), 477-483. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.07.002

El Haj, M., Boutoleau-Bretonnière, C., & Janssen, S. M. J. (2021). Eye movements of recent and remote autobiographical memories: fewer and longer lasting fixations during the retrieval of childhood memories. Psychol Res, 85(6), 2466-2473. doi:10.1007/s00426-020-01403-3

Gunter, R.W. & Bodner, G.E. (2008). How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: Support for a working-memory account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 913– 931.

Hornsveld, H. K., Houtveen, J. H., Vroomen, M., Aalbers, I. K. D., Aalbers, D., & van den Hout, M. A. (2011). Evaluating the effect of eye movements on positive memories such as those used in resource development and installation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(4), 146-155. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.5.4.146

Hornsveld, H. K., Landwehr, F., Stein, W., Stomp, M., Smeets, S., & van den Hout, M. A. (2010). Emotionality of loss-related memories is reduced after recall plus eye movements but not after recall plus music or recall only. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4(3), 106-112.

Hout, M. A. V. D., Engelhard, I. M., Smeets, M. A. M., Hornsveld, H., Hoogeveen, E., de Heer, E., et al. (2010). Counting during recall: Taxing of working memory and reduced vividness and emotionality of negative memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(3), 303-311.

Johansson, R., Nyström, M., Dewhurst, R., & Johansson, M. (2022). Eye-movement replay supports episodic remembering. Proc Biol Sci, 289(1976), 20220964. doi:10.1098/rspb.2022.0964

Kapoula, Z., Yang, Q., Bonnet, A., Bourtoire, P., & Sandretto, J. (2010). EMDR effects on pursuit eye movements. Plos ONE, 5(5), e10762.

Kavanagh, D. J., Freese, S., Andrade, J., & May, J. (2008). Effects of visuospatial tasks on desensitization to emotive memories. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 267-280.

Kuiken, D., Bears, M., Miall, D., & Smith, L. (2002). Eye movement desensitization reprocessing facilitates attentional orienting. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 21, (1), 3-20.

Landin-Romero, R., Moreno-Alcazar, A., Pagani, M., & Amann, B. L. (2018). How Does Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Work? A Systematic Review on Suggested Mechanisms of Action. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.

Lee, C.W. (2006). Efficacy and mechanisms of action of EMDR as a treatment for PTSD. Retrieved May 28, 2010 from Murdoch Research Repository: http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/152/

Lee, C.W., & Drummond, P.D. (2008). Effects of eye movement versus therapist instructions on the processing of distressing memories. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(5), 801-808.

Mathijssen, S. J. M. A., van Beerschotencd, L. M., de Jongh, A., Klugkist, I. G., & van den Houtab, M. A. (2018). Effects of “Visual Schema Displacement Therapy” (VSDT), an abbreviated EMDR protocol and a control condition on emotionality and vividness of aversive memories: Two critical analogue studies. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.

Maxfield, L., Melnyk, W.T. & Hayman, C.A. G. (2008). A working memory explanation for the effects of eye movements in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(4), 247-261.

Mertens, G., Krypotos, A.-M., van Logtestijn, A., Landkroon, E., Veen, S. C. V., & Engelhard, I. M. (2018). Changing negative autobiographical memories in the lab: A comparison of three eye-movement tasks. Memory.

Novo Navarro, P., Maiche Marini, A., Scott, J., Landin-Romero, R., & Amann, B. L. (2013). No effects of eye movements on the encoding of the visuospatial sketchpad and the phonological loop in healthy participants: Possible implications for eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(8), 983-988. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.08.005

Parker, A., Buckley, S. & Dagnall, N. (2009). Reduced misinformation effects following saccadic bilateral eye movements. Brain and Cognition, 69, 89-97.

Reichel, V., Sammer, G., Gruppe, H., Hanewald, B., Garder, R., Bloß, C., & Stingl, M. (2021). Good vibrations: Bilateral tactile stim1ulation decreases startle magnitude during negative imagination and increases skin conductance response for positive imagination in an affective startle reflex paradigm. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 5(3), 100197. doi:10.1016/j.ejtd.2020.100197

Sharpley, C. F. Montgomery, I. M., & Scalzo, L. A. (1996). Comparative efficacy of EMDR and alternative procedures in reducing the vividness of mental images. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 25, 37-42.

Smeets, M. A., Dijs, M. W., Pervan, I., Engelhard, I. M., & van den Hout, M. A. (2012). Time-course of eye movement-related decrease in vividness and emotionality of unpleasant autobiographical memories. Memory, 20(4), 346-57. doi:10.1080/09658211.2012.665462

Van den Hout, M., Muris, P., Salemink, E., & Kindt, M. (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid and emotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 121-130.

van den Hout, M. A., Rijkeboer, M. M., Engelhard, I. M., Klugkist, I., Hornsveld, H., Toffolo, M. J., & Cath, D. C. (2012). Tones inferior to eye movements in the EMDR treatment of PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(5), 275-279. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.001

Psychophysiological and Neurobiological Evaluations

Amano, T., Seiyama, A., & Toichi, M. (2013). Brain activity measured with near-infrared spectroscopy during EMDR treatment of phantom limb pain. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(3), 144-153. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.3.144

Baptist, J., Thompson, D. E., Spencer, C., Mowla, M. R., Love, H. A., & Su, Y. (2020). Clinical efficacy of EMDR in unipolar depression: Changes in theta cordance. Psychiatry Res, 296, 113696. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113696

Bossini, L., Casolaro, I., Santarnecchi, E., Caterini, C., Koukouna, D., Fernandez, I., & Fagiolini, A. (2012). [Evaluation study of clinical and neurobiological efficacy of EMDR in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 12-5. doi:10.1708/1071.11733

Bossini, L., Fagiolini, A., & Castrogiovanni, P. (2007, November). Neuroanatomical changes after eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 19(4), 475-476.

Bossini, L., Santarnecchi, E., Casolaro, I., Koukouna, D., Caterini, C., Cecchini, F., . . . Fagiolini, A. (2017). Morphovolumetric changes after EMDR treatment in drug-naïve PTSD patients. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 52(1), 24-31. doi:10.1708/2631.27051

Boukezzi, S., El Khoury-Malhame, M., Auzias, G., Reynaud, E., Rousseau, P. F., Richard, E., . . . Khalfa, S. (2017). Grey matter density changes of structures involved in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after recovery following eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. Psychiatry Research, 266, 146-152. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2017.06.009

Butler, O., Herr, K., Willmund, G., Gallinat, J., Kühn, S., & Zimmermann, P. (2020). Trauma, treatment and Tetris: video gaming increases hippocampal volume in male patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci, 45(3), 190027. doi:10.1503/jpn.190027

Camacho-Conde, J. A. (2020). Cognitive Function Assessment of a Patient with PTSD Before and After EMDR Treatment. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(4), 216-228. doi:10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00022

Claudino, F. C. D. A., Gonçalves, L., Schuch, F. B., Martins, H. R. S., & Rocha, N. S. D. (2020). The Effects of Individual Psychotherapy in BDNF Levels of Patients With Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 1-9. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00445

de Voogd, L. D., Kanen, J. W., Neville, D. A., Roelofs, K., Fernández, G., & Hermans, E. J. (2018). Eye-movement intervention enhances extinction via amygdala deactivation. The Journal of Neuroscience, 0703-0718.

El Khoury-Malhame, M., Reynaud, E., Beetz, E. M., & Khalfa, S. (2017). Restoration of emotional control ability in PTSD following symptom amelioration by EMDR therapy. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 1(1), 73-79.

Gerardi, M., Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Kelley, M. (2010). Cortisol response following exposure treatment for PTSD in rape victims. J Aggress Maltreat Trauma, 19(4), 349-356.

Giotakos, O. (2020). Neurobiology of emotional trauma. Psychiatriki, 31(2), 162-171.

Grbesa, G., Simonovic, M., & Jankovic, D. (2010). Electrophysiological changes during EMDR treatment in patients with combat-related PTSD. Annals of General Psychiatry, 9(Suppl 1), S209.

Khalfa, S. (2019). The management of psychological trauma through EMDR therapy and the cerebral mechanisms involved. Revue de neuropsychologie, 2(4). doi:10.1684/nrp.2019.0522

Kowal, J. A. (2005). QEEG analysis of treating PTSD and bulimia nervosa using EMDR. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(Part 4), 114-115.

Lamprecht, F., Kohnke, C., Lempa, W., Sack, M., Matzke, M., & Munte, T. (2004). Event-related potentials and EMDR treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuroscience Research, 49 (2), 267-272.

Landin-Romero, R., Novo, P., Vicens, V., McKenna, P. J., Santed, A., Pomarol-Clotet, E., . . . Amann, B. L. (2013). EMDR therapy modulates the default mode network in a subsyndromal, traumatized bipolar patient. Neuropsychobiology, 67(3), 181-4. doi:10.1159/000346654

Lansing, K., Amen, D. G., Hanks, C., & Rudy, L. (2005, Fall). High-resolution brain SPECT imaging and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in police officers with PTSD. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 17(4), 526-532.

Laufer, S., Engel, S., Knaevelsrud, C., & Schumacher, S. (2018). Cortisol and alpha-amylase assessment in psychotherapeutic intervention studies: A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 95, 235-262. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.09.023

Levin, P., Lazrove, S., & van der Kolk, B. A. (1999). What psychological testing and neuroimaging tell us about the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13(1-2), 159-172.

Manthey, A., Sierk, A., Brakemeier, E. L., Walter, H., & Daniels, J. K. (2021). Does trauma-focused psychotherapy change the brain? A systematic review of neural correlates of therapeutic gains in PTSD. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 12(1), 1929025. doi:10.1080/20008198.2021.1929025

Oh, D.-H., & Choi, J. (2007). Changes in the regional cerebral perfusion after Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: A SPECT study of two cases. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(1), 24-30.

Otani, T., Matsuo, K., Kasai, K., Kato, T., & Kato, N. (2009, December). Hemodynamic responses of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuroscience Research, 65(4), 375-383.

Pagani, M., Castelnuovo, G., Daverio, A., La Porta, P., Monaco, L., Ferrentino, F. et al. (2018). Metabolic and Electrophysiological Changes Associated to Clinical Improvement in Two Severely Traumatized Subjects Treated With EMDR-A Pilot Study. Front Psychol, 9, 475.

Pagani, M., Hogberg, G., Fernandez, I., & Siracusano, A. (2013). Correlates of EMDR therapy in functional and structural neuroimaging: A critical summary of recent findings. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(1), 29-38. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.1.29

Pagani, M., Lorenzo, G. d., Verardo, A., Nicolais, G., Monaco, L., Niolu, C., . . . Siracusano, A. (2012). [Neurobiological correlates of EMDR therapy]. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 47(2), 16-8. doi:10.1708/1071.11734

Pagani, m., Di Lorenzo, G., Verardo, A. R., Nicolais, G., Lauretti, G., Russo, R., . . . Fernandez, I. (2012). Pre- intra- and post-treatment eeg imaging of EMDR - neurobiological bases of treatment efficacy. European Psychiatry, 27, Supplement 1(0), 1 -. doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(12)75329-4

Pagani, M. et al. (2007). Effects of EMDR psychotherapy on 99mTc-HMPAO distribution in occupation-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 28(10), 757–765.

Park, S. C., Park, Y. C., Lee, M. S., & Chang, H. S. (2012). Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor level may contribute to the therapeutic response to eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing in complex post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot study. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 24(6), 384-386. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5215.2011.00623.x

Parker, A., Powell, D., & Dagnall, N. (2018). Effects of Saccade Induced Retrieval Enhancement on conceptual and perceptual tests of explicit & implicit memory. Brain and Cognition, 121, 1-10.

Pierce, Z. P., & Black, J. M. (2021). The Neurophysiology Behind Trauma-Focused Therapy Modalities Used to Treat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Across the Life Course: A Systematic Review. Trauma Violence Abuse, 15248380211048446. doi:10.1177/15248380211048446

Rapcencu, A. E., Gorter, R., Kennis, M., van Rooij, S. J. H., & Geuze, E. (2017). Pre-treatment cortisol awakening response predicts symptom reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder after treatment. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 82, 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.04.010

Richardson, R., Williams, S.R., Hepenstall, S., Sgregory, L., McKie, & Corrigan, F. (2009). A single-case fMRI study EMDR treatment of a patient with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(1), 10-23.

Rousseau, P. F., Boukezzi, S., Garcia, R., Chaminade, T., & Khalfa, S. (2020). Cracking the EMDR code: Recruitment of sensory, memory and emotional networks during bilateral alternating auditory stimulation. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 4867420913623. doi:10.1177/0004867420913623

Rousseau, P.-F., El Khoury-Malhame, M., Reynaud, E., Boukezzi, S., Cancel, A., Zendjidjian, X., . . . Khalfa, S. (2019). Fear extinction learning improvement in PTSD after EMDR therapy: an fMRI study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), 1568132. doi:10.1080/20008198.2019.1568132

Rousseau, P. F., El Khoury-Malhame, M., Reynaud, E., Zendjidjian, X., Samuelian, J. C., & Khalfa, S. (2019). Neurobiological correlates of EMDR therapy effect in PTSD. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 3(2), 103-111.

Rousseau, P. F., Malbos, E., Verger, A., Nicolas, F., Lançon, C., Khalfa, S. et al. (2019). Increase of precuneus metabolism correlates with reduction of PTSD symptoms after EMDR therapy in military veterans: an 18F-FDG PET study during virtual reality exposure to war. European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, 1-5.

Sack, M., Lempa, W., & Lemprecht, W. (2007). Assessment of psychophysiological stress reactions during a traumatic reminder in patients treated with EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 15-23.

Sack, M., Nickel, L., Lempa, W., & Lamprecht, F. (2003) Psychophysiological regulation in patients suffering from PTSD: Changes after EMDR treatment. Journal of Psychotraumatology and Psychological Medicine, 1, 47 -57. (German).

Santarnecchi, E., Bossini, L., Vatti, G., Fagiolini, A., La Porta, P., Di Lorenzo, G., . . . Rossi, A. (2019). Psychological and Brain Connectivity Changes Following Trauma-Focused CBT and EMDR Treatment in Single-Episode PTSD Patients. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00129

Schubert, S. J., Lee, C. W., & Drummond, P. D. (2010). The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). J Anxiety Disord, [doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.06.024].

Schubert, S. J., Lee, C. W., & Drummond, P. D. (2016). Eye Movements Matter, But Why? Psychophysiological Correlates of EMDR Therapy to Treat Trauma in Timor-Leste. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(2), 70-81.

van der Kolk, B., Burbridge, J., & Suzuki, J. (1997). The psychobiology of traumatic memory: Clinical implications of neuroimaging studies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 99-113.

Verger, A., Rousseau, P. F., Malbos, E., Chawki, M. B., Nicolas, F., Lançon, C., . . . Guedj, E. (2020). Involvement of the cerebellum in EMDR efficiency: a metabolic connectivity PET study in PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1767986. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1767986

Vinkers, C. H., Geuze, E., van Rooij, S. J. H., Kennis, M., Schür, R. R., Nispeling, D. M., . . . Boks, M. P. (2019). Successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder reverses DNA methylation marks. Mol Psychiatry. doi:10.1038/s41380-019-0549-3

Yaggie, M., Stevens, L., Miller, S., Abbott, A., Woodruff, C., Getchis, M. et al. (2015). Electroencephalography Coherence, Memory Vividness, and Emotional Valence Effects of Bilateral Eye Movements During Unpleasant Memory Recall and Subsequent Free Association: Implications for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(2), 78-97.

Yoshii, T. (2021). The Role of the Thalamus in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Int J Mol Sci, 22(4). doi:10.3390/ijms22041730

Zantvoord, J. B., Zhutovsky, P., Ensink, J. B. M., Op den Kelder, R., van Wingen, G. A., & Lindauer, R. J. L. (2020). Trauma-focused psychotherapy response in youth with posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with changes in insula volume. J Psychiatr Res. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.10.037

Zhutovsky, P., Zantvoord, J. B., Ensink, J. B. M., Op den Kelder, R., Lindauer, R. J. L., & van Wingen, G. A. (2021). Individual prediction of trauma-focused psychotherapy response in youth with posttraumatic stress disorder using resting-state functional connectivity. Neuroimage Clin, 32, 102898. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102898

Emerging Applications

Abdi, N., Malekzadeh, M., Fereidouni, Z., Behnammoghadam, M., Zaj, P., Mozaffari, M. A., . . . Salehi, Z. (2021). Efficacy of EMDR Therapy on the Pain Intensity and Subjective Distress of Cancer Patients. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(1), 18-28. doi:10.1891/emdr-d-20-00036

Annesley, P., Alabi, A., & Longdon, L. (2019). The EMDR DeTUR protocol for the treatment of self-injury in a patient with severe personality disorder: a case report. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 5(1), 27-38. doi:10.1108/JCRPP-11-2018-0034

Baas, M. A. M., van Pampus, M. G., Braam, L., Stramrood, C. A. I., & de Jongh, A. (2020). The effects of PTSD treatment during pregnancy: systematic review and case study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1762310. doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1762310

Bae, H., & Kim, D. (2012). Desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing for an adolescent with internet addiction disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(2), 73-81. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.2.73

Bae, H., Kim, D. & Park, Y.C. (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression. Psychiatry Investigation, 5(1), 60-65.

Balbo, M., Zaccagino, M., Martina, C., & Civlotti, C. (2017). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and eating disorders: A systematic review. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14(5), 321-329.

Barol, B. I., & Seubert, A. (2010). Stepping stones: EMDR treatment of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and challenging behavior. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 4, 156-169.

Biggs, C., Tehrani, N., & Billings, J. (2021). Brief trauma therapy for occupational trauma-related PTSD/CPTSD in UK police. Occup Med (Lond), 71(4-5), 180-188. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqab075

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Faretta, E., & Civilotti, C. (2016). EMDR Therapy in Psycho-Oncology: A Bridge Between Mind and Body. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(3), 138-152.

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Jones, C., Cruz, A. M., Smith-MacDonald, L., Brown, M. R. G., Vermetten, E., & Breamult-Phillips, S. (2021). Technology Acceptance and Usability of a Virtual Reality Intervention for Military Members and Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Mixed Methods UTAUT Study. JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies. Retrieved from https://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/33681

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