Chronically stressed? It could be your genes.
It turns out there are a bunch of genes that can make it difficult for some people to eliminate toxins from the body—from air pollution, pesticides, fragrances, mold, estrogen, and even stress hormones. Once these genes start causing problems it can be incredibly difficult to return to health because of the cascading effects they have on every part of the body.
A Brief Intro to Genes
So what are "toxic genes"? Well, each of our genes has two parts. We get one part from our mom and one part from our dad. And there are a few different variations (called polymorphisms) we can get from each parent.
Think of them like Legos. Maybe I have a green Lego and you have a red Lego. They fit together the same, but they are a little different. And it turns out some of these differences can make us more prone to have issues with health, well-being, and stress.
Luckily, we do have some control over our genes. If we know which ones we have, we can support them, for example by modifying our environment (e.g., with foods, situations, vitamins). As a result, we can affect how these genes are expressed and improve our health and well-being. So the question then becomes: How do we eat for our genes?
The answer depends on which genes you have.
Here, I'll talk about Cytochrome P450 Genes and Glutathione S-Transferase Genes. These genes have an influence on our ability to detox, and therefore our health and well-being.
1. Cytochrome P450 Genes
What are they?
Cytochrome P450 genes (also called CYP genes) are largely responsible for Phase one detox in the liver. In Phase one detox, fat-soluble toxins are transformed into reactive molecules and free radicals, which can actually be more harmful than the toxins themselves. In a healthy body, Phase two detox snatches up and converts these reactive molecules quickly, so they do little harm. Then these toxins are removed from the body through urine, feces, or sweat.
But a problem arises if you have overactive CYP genes. You might think this would be good: Your Phase one detox system is fast. But it turns out this is quite problematic because Phase 1 is completed quickly, and reactive molecules and free-radicals can build up in your body causing extra harm if Phase 2 can't keep up. (We'll talk about Phase 2 genes in a bit.)
What to do about it:
First, with overactive CYP genes, we need to avoid toxins (e.g., nitrates, smoking, car exhaust, pesticides, preservatives, caffeine, alcohol, parabens, etc.) as these toxins can do more harm on the body than they would to someone without overactive CYP genes.
But in our modern world, it's impossible to avoid toxins. So this step may not be enough to prevent poor well-being. If we want to prevent the damage CYPs can do, we should also modify our diet.
With overactive CYP genes, next we want to avoid foods that increase CYP activity.
For example, research shows that resveratrol-containing foods (peanuts, pistachios, grapes, red and white wine, blueberries, cranberries, and even cocoa and dark chocolate) increase activity (CYP1A1). Soybean extract and green tea and black tea also appear to increase activity in some CYP genes (CYP1A1).
Third, we want to eat foods that reduce CYP activity.
For example, research suggests that ellagic acid (which is in strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, cherries, and walnuts, pomegranate, black current) may reduce CYP1A1 overactivity. Additionally, chrysoeriol, present in rooibos tea and celery inhibits CYP1B1 activity; apiaceous vegetables (carrots, parsnips, celery, dill, parsley, etc.) inhibit CYP1A2 activity; and grapefruit juice inhibits CYP1A2 activity. A rat study also suggests that dandelion, peppermint, or chamomile tea significantly decrease activity of CYP1A2.
Lastly, we may want to consume extra Vitamin C and Vitamin E to manage free-radicals produced by overactive CYP genes.
Important Note: This research applies only to overactive Cytochrome P450 genes.
2. Glutathione S-Transferase Genes
What are they?
Glutathione S-transferase genes (also called GST genes) are largely responsible for Phase 2 detox—the part of detox in which reactive molecules and free radicals (that emerge from Phase one detox of toxins) are transformed into more easily excretable substances for elimination through urine, feces, or sweat.
A problem arises when GST genes aren't working properly. GST genes can be entirely "out of order" (homozygously deleted; also called null or deletion). When a GST gene is "null" it doesn't work at all. Somewhere around 20% to 50% of people have a GST null gene.
Luckily, having a GST-null gene isn't a death sentence. Because each of us have multiple GST genes, as well as other Phase two genes, the other genes can take up the slack—if we provide them with the right support. It's just like if a restroom is "out of order"—the lines for the other restrooms are longer. So we need to do whatever we can to decrease the length of the lines and move the lines through quickly.
What to do about it:
Research suggests that you can support GST genes (and Phase 2 detox) by consuming bitter herbs that promote liver health—things like milk thistle and dandelion.
It's also helpful to eat foods high in alpha-lipoic acid, which boosts glutathione. These foods include spinach, broccoli, yams, potatoes, yeast, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts, carrots, and beets. Red meat—particularly organ meat—is also a good source of alpha-lipoic acid.
Eating foods high in limonoids (from citrus fruit, especially sour fruit) also appear to support GST.
Note: If you have both overactive CYP genes and under-active GST genes, your problem is compounded because toxins spend more time as highly damaging reactive molecules floating around your body. In this case, it is especially important to eat for your genes.
Chow H. H. S., Garland L. L., Hsu C. H., et al. Resveratrol modulates drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in a healthy volunteer study. Cancer Prevention Research. 2010;3(9):1168–1175. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0155
Hodges, R. E., & Minich, D. M. (2015). Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application. Journal of nutrition and metabolism, 2015, 760689. doi:10.1155/2015/760689